JAINA ARCHITECTURE
in India

TAKEO KAMIYA

Jain Architecture

( from the Architectural Magazine "at" 1993 -94 )

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___Chapter 1___DELWARA TEMPLES at Mt. ABU jaina arc
___Chapter 2___JAINA CAVE TEMPLES at ELLORA Jaina Caves
___Chapter 3___ARCHITECTURE in NORTHERN INDIA North Jain
___Chapter 4___ARCHITECTURE in SOUTHERN INDIA South Jain
___Chapter 5___TEMPLE CITIES on the MOUNTAINS Temple Cities
___Chapter 6___ADINATHA TEMPLE at RANAKPUR Ranakpur
___Chapter 7___JAINA PILGRIMAGE in NORTH INDIA North Jain
___Chapter 8___JAINA PILGRIMAGE in SOUTH INDIA South Jain
___Appendix____KALPA SUTRA, Jain Manuscript_ Kalpa Sutra
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COMPARISON BETWEEN JAINISM & BUDDHISM


JAINISM BUDDHISM
Founder Kâsapa Vardhamâna Gotama Siddhârtha
Honorific name Mahâvîra (Great Hero),
Nigantha Nâtaputta, Jina
Buddha, Sâkyamuni,
Sâkyaputta
Life BC. 599-527, BC. 598-526
(traditional)
BC. 549-477, BC. 539-467,
BC. 444-372 (modern)
(Died at the age of 72)
BC. 563-483, BC. 463-383 (northern)
BC. 623-543 (southern)
(Died at the age of 80)
Birth place Kundagrâma town
North of Vaishâli
in Magadha
Lumbini Garden
(under an ashoka tree)
in Kapilavastu
Native class Kshatriya (Warrior class),
Jnatri clan
Kshatrya (Warrior class),
Shakya clan
Parents Kâshapa Siddhârtha
Trishalâ (Priyakarini)
Shuddhodana
Mâyâ (died 7days after the birth)
Marriage Married Kaundinuya Yashoda
Daughter: Anojjah (married Jamali)
Married Yashodarâ
at the age of 16
Son: Râhula
Renunciation Become a shramana of
Nigantha, at the age of 30
Become a shramana in Maghada, at the age of 29
Enlightenment After 12 years of asceticism, became Jina After 6 years of penance and meditation,
became Buddha
Place of enlightenment Under a Shala tree,
by the river Rijupâlikâ, near Jrimbhikagrâma village
Under an Ashvattha (Bodhi) tree, by the river Nairanjanâ, near Gayâ
Place of the
first sermon
Sârnâth (Migadâya, Deer Park)
Epistemology Seven satyas (jiva, ajiva,
âsrava, bandha, samvara, nirjarâ, moksha)
Syâdvâda (Relativism)
Four satyas (dukha-satya, samudaya-satya, nirodha-satya, marga-satya)
Practice Asceticism
Ahimsâ (non violence)
Triratna (Samyagdarsana, Samyagjnana, Samyakcâritra)
Madhyamâ Pratipad (middle path)
Madyana Pratipad
(eight right paths)
Five vows Non violence, not lying, not stealing, non illicit sex, non posession Non violence, not lying, not stealing, non illicit sex, temperance
Place of Nirvâna Pâwâ near Nâlandâ (now Pâwâpuri) Kushinagara (now Kasia), under Shala trees
Main disciples Indrabhûti Gautama, Sudharman Sâriputta, Mahâmoggallana
Order Sangha
Sacred books Siddhânta (Âgama) Tripitaka (Triple Basket)
Sacred language Ardha-Magadhi Pâli
Principle of teaching "Tattvârthâdhigamasûtra"
Story of former life "Bhavisattakahâ" "Jâtaka" (Birth)
Deification Jina (spiritual victor)
24 Tîrthankaras (saviour)
- 1st, Âdinâtha
- 23rd, Pârshvanâtha
- 24th, Mahâvira
Buddha (awakened one)
Past 7 Buddhas (past 24 Buddhas)
Future Buddha (Maitreya)
Dhyani-Buddhas
Sects Digambara (Sky-clad)
Shwetâmbara (White-clad)
Terapantha (no temple)

Theravâda (way of the elders)
Mahâyâna (greater vehicle)
Vajrayâna (vehicle of diamond)

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TIRTHANKARA


JINA statue
Statue of a Tirthankara ( Jina )

The founder of Jainism is Vardamana or Mahavira (Great Hero). But it is said that he is tha last Tirthankara or Jina (Victor) and the first one is Adinatha. Every Jain temple is dedicated to one of the 24 Tirthankaras.



Name of Tirthankara Symbol & Complexion
1 Rishabha (Adinatha) Bull, Gold
2 Ajita (Ajiya) Elephant, Gold
3Shambava Horse, Gold
4 Abinandana Ape, Gold
5Sumati Curlew, Gold
6Padmapraba (Paumappabha) Lotus, Red
7Suparshuva Swastika mark, Gold
8Chandraprabha (Chandappabha) Crescent-moon, White
9Suvidhi (Puspadanta) Crocodile, White
10Sitaranatha Srivatsa mark, Gold
11Shureyansa Rhinoceros, Gold
12Vaspujya Buffalo, Red
13 Vimala Boar, Gold
14Ananta Falcon, Gold
15Dharma (Damma) Thunderbolt, Gold
16Shanti Antelope, Gold
17 Kunthu Goat, Gold
18Ara Nandyavarta mark, Gold
19Malli Water-jar, Blue
20Suvrata Tortoise, Black
21Nami Blue water-lily, Gold
22Nemi (Aristanemi) Conch shell, Black
23Parshva (Pasa) Serpent, Blue
24Mahavira (Vardhamana) Lion, Gold



Bibliography


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© Takeo Kamiya
E-mail to: kamiya@t.email.ne.jp